ESM2025 is an ambitious European project on Earth System Modelling, coordinated by Météo France-CNRM. The project starts on 1 June 2021 and is funded with 11M€ from the European Commission’s H2020 programme.

ESM2025 relies on an international team of 19 European institutes (from 7 European countries: Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK) and an Australian university.

The ESM2025 project aims to develop the next generation of Earth System Models (ESMs). This will take a step forward in providing relevant climate simulations for the development of ambitious and realistic mitigation and adaptation strategies in line with the Paris Agreement

More specifically, ESM2025 aims to develop this new generation of ESMs by: the integration of new components in the ESMs; the representation of interactions and couplings between the components within the ESMs; the improvement of key climate processes through the use of machine learning/artificial intelligence or the use of constraints derived from available observations.

ESM2025 will also improve the consistency between ESMs and Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) and thus better represent the full Earth system response to anthropogenic emissions and treatment of human land use change in the ESMs. In particular, the results of these ESMs will contribute to improve the coherence of climate and mitigation processes in ESMs and IAMs.

The novel generation of ESMS will contribute to the production of an improved set of climate projections that will support European climate services and IPCC assessments, thus helping to better guide public action in the implementation of the Paris Agreement.

Within the framework of ESM2025, IPSL will improve the fundamental components of the IPSL-CM climate model regarding land and ocean biogeochemistry, atmospheric chemistry and land-surface biophysical interactions. One of its key implications will consist in including a complete representation of the nitrogen cycle within all the components of the model, in order to better quantify the impact of this cycle on the climate and associated feedback. IPSL will also aim to integrate a detailed modeling of anthropogenic processes relating to human action on continental surfaces (agricultural practices and forest management).